fragment being cut off for each repetition of the offence, and the
delinquents are known as hardniiyeh, or thieves. The horse and don¬
key-shoes consist of plates of metal with a hole in the middle.
The Camel (for riding hegin, in Syria delul; for baggage gemel;
those with one hump are the only kind found here) is generally used
for the Mt. Sinai tour (R. 10) only, but for the sake of experiment
may be ridden on one of the shorter excursions from Cairo (e.g. to
the Petrified Forest or to Helwan). The patient 'ship of the desert'
is always surly in appearance, and though he commands our respect
never wins our affection. Those only which have been pjopeiiy
trained can be ridden with any comfort, the baggage-camels being
as unsuitable for the purpose as the ponderous Flemish cart-horse.
If well mounted on a tall and well trained hegin, the traveller will
find that camel-riding is quite undeserving of the vituperation so
often bestowed upon it by the inexperienced (comp. also R. 10).
(7). Dealings with the Natives. Dragomans.
The traveller, apart from his ignorance of the language, will
find it exceedingly difficult to deal with the class of people with
whom he chiefly comes in contact. The extravagance of their
demands is boundless, and they appear to think that Europeans
are absolutely ignorant of the value of money (p. 16). Every at¬
tempt at extortion should be firmly resisted, as compliance only
makes the applicants for bakhshish doubly clamorous. Payment
should never be made until the service stipulated for has been
rendered, after which an absolutely deaf ear should be turned to
the protestations and entreaties which almost invariably follow.
Thanks, it need hardly be said, must never be expected from such
recipients (comp. p. 16). Even when an express bargain has been
made, and more than the stipulated sum paid, they are almost sure
to pester the traveller in the way indicated. When no bargain has
been made, the fees and prices mentioned in the Handbook, all of
which are ample, should be paid without remark ; and if the attacks
which ensue are not silenced by an air of calm indifference the
traveller may use the word ruh or imshi (comp. p. 204) in a quiet but
decided and imperative tone. The Egyptians, it must be remem¬
bered , occupy a much lower grade in the scale of civilisation than
most of the western nations, and cupidity is one of their chief fail¬
ings ; but if the traveller makes due allowance for their shortcomings,
and treats the natives with consistent firmness, he will find that they
are by no means destitute of fidelity, honesty, and kindliness.
Notwithstanding all the suggestions we have ventured to offer,
the traveller will to some extent have to buy his experience. In
most cases the overcharges to which he will be exposed will be
comparatively trifling; but if extortion is attempted on a larger
scale, he had better refer the matter to his consul.