Spanish, Austrian, and French domination hâve left the Flemish
language unaltered for the simple reason that it was never used
as a written language, except for catechisms, prayer-books, legends,
etc., for the use of the lower classes. Since the year 1840 several
scholars of eminence and a number of learned societies hâve zea-
lously striven to procure the introduction of Flemish into thehigher
political and social circles , but their efforts hâve hitherto met with
indiffèrent success. A law was passed in 1873 permitting a more
gênerai use of Flemish in judicial proceedings than had previously
been compétent, and in 1883 the use of the Flemish speech was re-
introduced into the middle-class schools of the Flemish provinces.
While, however, this may tend to préserve and purify the language,
the fact remains unchanged, that a knowledge of French is still con-
sidered indispensable to ail but the lowest agricultural and labour-
The following peculiarities of pronunciation are common to
Flemish and Dutch : y (in Dutch ij) is pronounced like the Eng¬
lish i in time (but in West Flanders like e), u like the French u, eu
like the French eu, eeu like the English a (in fate\ oe like oo, ae
like ah, ou as in English, ui like the French eu-i, oei like we, sch
like s and the guttural ch in the Scotch loch, and sch at the end
of a word almost like s.
After what has been said, it need hardly>be added that a slight
knowledge of French will enable the traveller in Belgium to con¬
verse with every one with whom he is likely to corne in contact,
and that an acquaintance with the Flemish and Walloon dialects
will probably be of little use except to the philologist. Those
who are ignorant of French will be glad to know that English is
spoken at most of the principal hôtels throughout the country.
V. Churches, Picture Galleries, and Collections.
The Churches (Roman Catholic) are usually open from 6 a. m.
till noon, but in the afternoon the visitor must apply to the sacris-
tan. If the architecture or the pulpit be the chief object of interest it
may be inspected in the forenoon, but when pictures are to be seen
the attendance of the sacristan is necessary, as they are often covered
with curtains or concealed in side-chapels. The best hours in this
case are 12-4 p.m., when there is no service. Fee for one person
V2-I fr-, and for a party more in proportion. In many churches
the fées are flxed by tariff, but hère also a fee to the sacristan is oc-
Picture Galleries and Collections are generally open gratis
from 10 or 11 a.m. till 3, 4, ot 5 p.m., but on certain days a trifling
fee for admission (V2-I fr0 ig sometimes charged. For admission
to town-halls and similar sights, the fee is usually about the same.
In visiting a private collection a single traveller is expected to
give a gratuity of about 2 fr.