HOLLAND. History. XXXIII
William III. was succeeded by his brave cousin John William
Friso, Prince of Orange (d. 1714), who had commanded the army
of the Republic during the war of the Spanish succession. Under
his presidency the power of the States General manifested itself
anew, a7id in 1714 the Peace Congress assembled at Utrecht, on
The events of the 18th cent, scarcely require special mention.
The Republic had lost its prestige, and in the continui7ig allia7ice
with England'the preponderating power of the latter became more
and more marked. A revolutio7i which broke out towards the close
pf the century ended in the expulsion of the Stadtholder William V. ;
but he was rei7istated in his office by the Prussian army which
had advanced almost u7iopposed to the gates of Amsterdam itself.
The importance of the Republic had now dwindled to a mere
shadow. In 1795 the French Republicans, led by Dutch exiles,
took possession of the country, founded the 'Batavian Republic',
and at the same time caused heavy taxes to be levied. Schimmel-
pennink, an able statesman, was created president of the new Re¬
public, under the old title of Grand Pensionary, but in 1805 was
compelled to yield up his authority to Louis Bonaparte, who had
been created Ki7ig of Holland by his brother Napoleon I. This
semblance of indepe7ident existe7ice came to an end in 1810,
whe7i Napoleon annexed Holland to France, declaring it to have
been formed by the alluvial deposits of French rivers.
At length in November, 1813, the French were expelled from
Holland by the Dutch, aided by the Russians and Prussians ; a7id
the Prince of Orange, son of William V., the last stadtholder, who
died in exile in 1806, ascended the throne of Holland as an in¬
By the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the southern, or Belgian
provinces of the Netherlands, were united with the northern into a
single Kingdom, and the Prince of Orange was created King of the
Netherlands, under the title of William I. This bond of u7iion
between two races differi7ig materially in language, religion, and
character was severed by the Belgian Revolution of 1830 (comp.
p. xvn). Ten years later William I. abdicated in favour of
his son William II., who died in 1849, and was succeeded by
William III., the present king (born in 1817, married Princess
Sophia of Wurtemberg in 1839 ; their eldest son William , Prince
of Orange, was born in 1840).
Area and Population. The Kingdom of the Netherlands, in¬
cluding the Province of Limburg, is 13,000 sq. M. in area, and has a
population of 3,716,002 (V3rd Rom. Cath., 680,000 Jews), of whom
about 2l/% millions are of Batavian, or Dutch, half a million of
Frisian, and nearly as many of Flemish origin. Amsterdam is the
capital of the kingdom, and the Hague is the residence of the king.
The Netherlands are divided into eleven provinces : N. Brabant (capi-