the party, the coupe' ('/3rd dearer) should if possible be secured.
Regular communication cannot be depended on, except on the
principal routes. The importunities of the coachmen at the end
of each stage should be disregarded.
Vetturini, by whom the sole communication between many towns
was formerly maintained, are now entirely superseded by the more
modern diligences and railways. The ordinary traveller will pro¬
bably rarely have occasion to submit to this obsolete style of
conveyance, except on the route between Savona and Mentone,
and Chiavari and La Spezia. The charges of the carriages are
stated in the Handbook; the traveller is, however, recommended
to make a previous personal agreement with the vetturino (agents
to be avoided). The contract is made 'tutto compreso', and if
satisfaction is given, an additional fee may be bestowed at the
termination of the journey.
A single traveller may also bargain with a vetturino for a
place, the charge for which varies. The back-seats are 'i primi
posti', which are generally secured by the first comers, who are
first consulted with regaid to the arrangement of the journey.
Besides the above-mentioned conveyances, carriages may every¬
where be hired (one-horse about 80 c. per Engl. M.).
Prolonged walking - tours. such as are undertaken in more
northern climates, and fatiguing excursions will be found wholly
unsuitable to the Italian climate. Cool and clear weather should
if possible be selected and the sirocco carefully avoided. The
height of summer is totally adverse to tours of this kind.
A horse (cavallo) or donkey (sommaro), between which the
difference of expen>e is inconsiderable, often affords a pleasant
and inexpensive mode of locomotion, especially in mountainous
districts, where the attendant (pedone) acts at once as a servant
for the time being and as a guide.
The idea of cleanliness in Italy is in arrear of the age; the
brilliancy of the southern climate perhaps, in the opinion of the
natives, neutralizes dirt. The traveller will, however, not suffer
much annoyance in this respect in hotels and lodgings of the
best class. Those who quit the beaten track, on the other hand,
must be prepared for pr vations. Insect-powder (polvere di Persia)
or powdered camphor is some antidote to the advances of noc¬
turnal intruders. The zanzare, or gnats . are a source of great
annoyance , and often suffering, during the autumn months.
Windows should always be carefully closed before a light is
introduced into the room. Light muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round
the beds , masks for the face, and gloves are employed to ward
olf the attacks of these pertinacious tormentors.
B/kdekek. Italy I. 2nd Edit. b.