abated. The winter in Lombard) and Piedmont is not less
severe than in England and \V. Europe generally. Nice and
Venice are recommended as the most suitable residences for the
cold season. The height of summer can hardly be recommended
for travelling. The scenery, indeed, is then in perfection, and
the long days are hailed with satisfaction by the active traveller;
but the fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom fail to exercise a
prejudicial influence upon the physical and mental energies.
This result is not occasioned so much by the intensity as by
the protracted duration of the heat, the sky being frequently
cloudless and not a drop of rain falling for several months in
succession. The first showers of autumn, which fall about the
end of August, again commence to refresh the parched atmosphere.
The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the
study of the Italian language at home will be amply repaid as
he proceeds on his journey. It is by no means impossible to travel
through Italy without an acquaintance with Italian or French, but
in this case the traveller cannot conveniently deviate from the
ordinary track and is moreover invariably charged (alia Inglese)
by hotel-keepers and others, considerably in excess of the ordi¬
nary prices. A knowledge of French is of the greatest advan¬
tage, for the Italians are extremely partial to that language, and
avail themselves of every opportunity of employing it. For those,
howe\er, who des re to confine their expenditure within the
average limits, a slight acquaintance with the language-j- of the
country is indispensable.
Nowhere more than in Italy is the traveller who is ignorant
of the language debarred from much of the true enjoyment of
travelling , and from the opportunity of forming an independent
opinion of the country, its customs, history, literature and art.
t ^Baedeker's Manual of Conversation in four languages (Englis)i, French,
German and Italian) with vocabulary etc." (20th edit.) will be found ser¬
viceable for this purpose. With the addition of a pocket-dictionary the tra¬
veller may safely encounter the difficulties of the situation. A few brief
remarks on the pronunciation may here be made for the benefit of
those unacquainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like
the English ch, g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or i, are hard; sc before e or
«' is pronounced like sh, gn and gl between vowels like ny and ly. In other
respects the pronunciation of Italian more nearly resembles that of German
than that of French or English. The prosody occasionally presents difficul¬
ties , being different from what one would naturally expect: e. g. Udlne,
Vigevano, Nabresina. — In addressing persons of the educated classes 'lei'
with the 3rd pers. sing, should always be employed (addressing several at
once, 'loro' with the 3rd pers. pi.) 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters,
drivers etc., 'tu' by those only who ore proficient in the language. 'Voi'
is the commonest mode of address employed by the Neapolitans, but is ge¬
nerally regarded as inelegant or uncourteous.